Write a professional article

A technical article is a scientific paper in which a specific problem is addressed. One of the distinguishing features of a scientific article is that it is not only descriptive, but above all analytical.

Trade journals and reference works

This means that in a journal article a problem is not simply described but examined, compared, reviewed, discussed and justified from different points of view. Scientific articles appear, for example, in journals or in scientific anthologies and reference works.

However, pupils and students also learn to write articles in the form of written homework. These are based on scientific work and are intended to convey the basic way of working.

Write instructions and structure for the article

Anyone wishing to write a successful journal article can follow the general guidelines for scientific papers. This manual essentially specifies the structural structure of a specialist article and thus helps to organize the specialist article in such a way that a red thread becomes recognizable.

A journal article is divided into three major sections, the introductory part, the main part and the concluding part, each of which is divided into individual chapters and comprises different contents:

The first part of the article contains an abstract, the introduction and the synopsis.

An abstract is a kind of short abstract that reproduces the content of the specialist article in a concise and succinct manner. This means that the most important theses and the key messages are presented in a nutshell. The purpose of the introduction is to show the reader what to expect in the following and to introduce him to the subject. As part of the introduction, the research question is formulated and the motivation for the scientific article is named. The table of contents shows the structure of the specialist article.

The main part of the technical article is usually divided into a theoretical and a methodological part.

In the theoretical part the question is described and the results are shown, checked, compared with each other and discussed with arguments.

In the methodological part, the author shows which methods, measures, means and tools he has used to work on the question.

The final section essentially contains a summary and a conclusion.

This means that the author tackles the problem and summarizes the most important arguments and results in a concise way.

He also describes which further questions have arisen, which problems have remained unresolved or where and in what form the findings can be applied. The conclusion is a bibliography that lists all cited and used sources.

In addition to the instructions for the structure and structure of a specialist article, there are also tips that relate to the content:

If the author wants to write a meaningful and successful article, he should consider three main aspects, the key words being demarcation, gap and evidence. Delineation means that the paper deals with a question that is clear and concise and precisely defined, so readers can clearly see what the author is writing about.

Gap refers to the processing of the question. This means that the paper has to present aspects and results of the research that have not yet been said or have not yet been discussed from these perspectives.

Evidence suggests that a journal article must contain information that can be used to verify that the statements and theses are correct or false.


How to write a summary

Most pupils have to write a summary in school, for example, from a text, a book or an event. By writing a summary, the students should learn to put the contents of a topic in a nutshell.

Different functions

In principle, summaries can fulfill different functions. Essentially, however, it is about informing the reader in a concise and concise way about a topic and its contents and thus providing it with an overview.

In addition, scientific papers begin with a summary. In this context, the abstract is referred to as an abstract and contains a brief and compact overview of the following contents, the theses, the core questions, the arguments and the most important results.

Instructions and tips for writing a summary

Now, of course, the question arises, how a summary is written, which points have to be considered and which tips are there for writing a summary. First of all, it makes sense to summarize the most important contents or the course of action in key words.

A summary is not about showing every little detail, it’s about creating a compact overview. Keyword listing helps identify what content and aspects are important to understanding and what details can be omitted. A summary is structured according to the instructions for most written works in an introduction, a main part and a trailer.

The introduction lists the most important information so that the reader knows what the summary is about.

The main part then contains the actual summary, in which the contents are presented briefly and compactly. However, the author should limit himself to the essentials. That is, it gives the reader all the information he needs to understand the subject and get his own picture. Details that are not relevant to understanding are not described.

The final part may indicate stylistic or linguistic characteristics, the intentions of the author of the origin or the effect of the work.

Linguistically and stylistically, a summary is short, precise, factual, informative and neutral. This means that the author does without judgments, judgments or linguistic embellishments.

The tense

The tense in which a summary is written is always the present, that is, the present form. In addition, a summary is structured chronologically. This means that it follows the timeline in which the respective work is written.

If a book is summarized that contains time jumps or flashbacks, the contents must be arranged so that the summary shows the plot in a comprehensible way. It is also important that the author writes in his own words.

This means that the author should not write a summary in which passages are copied from the original text or constantly use quotes, but he should try to reproduce the contents in his own words.

A successful summary is based on a few key principles:

This includes the principle of fidelity, which means that the author writes neutrally and without judgment and does not distort the summary by his own view or attitude.

In addition, the principles of brevity and relevance apply.

The author should focus on the essentials and pay attention to meaningful information in a short and concise form. In addition, the principle of coherence plays a role, which states that even a summary should be an interestingly written, coherent text.

In addition, the principle of addressee orientation is very important.

This principle is based on the fact that the author does not require a certain previous knowledge, but should write his summary in such a way that it is understandable and comprehensible for as many readers as possible.


How to write a comment

The commentary is a journalistic form of presentation through which the author expresses his personal and judgmental opinion on a particular topic. While other journalistic types of text such as news, news, interviews or reports objectively and neutrally inform about a topic, the comment belongs to the group of opinionated articles.

This means, in the context of a commentary, the author complements the commented article with background information, analyzes, interpretations and the presentation of contradictions and consequences and on this basis presents his personal attitude.

A special form of commentary is the editorial.

This shows the political tendency of a newspaper, is on the first page and is usually written by the chief editor. Comments are usually written on current events, developments and trends in the fields of politics, economics, society, sports or culture.

Instructions and structure for a comment

Basically, however, any message can be commented on and also with regard to the structural structure or the writing style there is no rigid guidance and no fixed rules.

Nevertheless, comments can be divided into three main groups:

An argumentation commentary focuses on arguments. This means that the author uses factual arguments that shed light on different sides of the topic while underpinning his own opinion.

The either / or comment is similar to a discussion. The author shows the connections of the topic and weighs pros and cons. The opinion on such a comment may vary, either in the form of a judgment, a compromise or the fact that the author does not draw a clear position.

The third variant is the straight-line commentary. Here the author comes straight to the point and expresses his opinion without much introduction or argumentation. As a rule, an intelligible, clear and clear language is used, by which the author expresses his praise or blame, his enthusiasm or indignation.

Even if a comment gives the impression that it can be written fairly quickly and easily, this assumption is a fallacy.

If you want to write a comment, you have to do a lot of preliminary work.

This includes, on the one hand, researching, learning the links between the subject and linking them together and informing one another about existing opinions in public. On the other hand, the author must recognize the significance of his responsibility, because by commenting he influences the opinion of the reader about an event or a question.

In addition, the author must be clear about which and whether he wants to take a clear position. So it is easier to have an opinion on a current political decision than, for example, ethical issues.

A comment is essentially divided into two parts:

First, there follows an introduction that briefly and concisely informs about the facts, and then comes a logically structured argumentation, which finally ends in a comprehensible and understandable conclusion.

In order to convincingly express one’s own opinion and convince, provoke, or encourage the reader to think for themselves, the author can draw on some tips and tricks. Popular means in comments include rhetorical questions, irony, exaggerations, ambiguous terms or metaphors.

Anyone who wants to write a comment and publish, but should be aware that he stands for it with his name. In that sense, he should first consider how vulnerable he wants to make himself.